T-28 Medium Tank

T-28 m/1938 Medium Tank


T-28 tank at the Parola Armour Museum. This is a model 1938 captured during the Winter War
and later uparmored to T-28E standards by the Finnish Army. Lugs for the additional
armor, now gone, can be seen on the front glacis.


This is a preliminary version of the T-28 medium tank. It is ready to be used in the Unfinished Business scenario but no hit location data is yet available. There are undoubtedly omissions and inaccuracies in this article so any additional information and comments are welcome.

Bibliography:

  • -:I AK:n pioneerikäsky, -, -.
  • -:Opaskirjanen puna-armeijan tarkeimmista panssarivaunutyypeista ja niiden torjunnasta. Päämaja Tiedusteluosasto, -, 1942.
  • -:Tietoja puna-armeijan panssarikalustosta ja sen käytösta varsinkin Suomen rintamalla sodissa vv. 1939-1940 ja 1941-1942. Päämaja Tiedusteluosasto, -, 1942.
  • The AFV News website at http://www.activevr.com/afv/
  • The Armored War! website at http://wwii-allied-afvs.virtualave.net/
  • The Guns versus Armour website formerly at http://www.wargamer.org/GvA/
  • Baryatinsky, Maxim & Pavlov, Maxim:T-28 medium tank. Arsenal, Moscow 1993.
  • Bean, Tim and Fowler, Will: Russian Tanks of World War II - Stalin's Armoured Might. Ian Allan Publishing, Surrey 2002.
  • Foss, Christopher F.: Die Panzer des Zweiten Weltkrieges. Podzun-Pallas Verlag, Friedberg 1988.
  • IPMS Mallari 121 5/1997. IPMS Finland, Helsinki 1997.
  • Kantakoski, Pekka: Punaiset panssarit - Puna-armeijan panssarijoukot 1918-1945. Pekka Kantakoski, Hauho 1998.
  • Milsom, John: Russian Tanks 1900-1970 - The Complete Illustrated History of Soviet Armoured Theory and Design. Arms and Armour Press, London 1970.
  • The Red Steel website at http://www.algonet.se/~toriert/
  • The Russian Battlefield website at http://battlefield.ru/
  • The Soviet WWII Tank Radios website at http://www.wlhoward.com/sovrad.html
  • WW2 AFV Portal website at http://www.wargaming.net/tanks/
  • Zaloga, Steven and Grandsen, James: T-34 in Action. Squadron/Signal Publications, Texas 1983.
  • Zaloga, Steven and Kinnear, Jim: Soviet Tanks in Combat - The T-28, T-34, T-34-85 and T-44 Medium Tanks. Concord Publications Company, Hong Kong 1997.

    Satchel charge effect research by A. Heiskanen.
    All pictures were published with the kind permission of Parola Armour Museum.


    Data:

    T-28 Medium Tank m/1938 (T-28B)

    Crew 6
    Weight 27 800 kg
    Length 7.44 m
    Width 2.81 m
    Height 2.82 m
    Gradient 45 degrees
    Gradient, side 31 degrees
    Ground clearance 56 cm
    Vertical step 100 cm
    Trench-crossing 350 cm
    Fording 100 cm
    Tree-felling 40 cm

    Track width 39 cm
    Track ground length 503 cm
    Track Gauge 239 cm
    Ground pressure 0.73 kp/cm^2 (10.4 psi)
    Steering mechanism: Clutch-brake

    Engine and transmission:
    MT-17L, 46.9 liter water-cooled 12-cylinder gasoline engine
    500 hp at 1445 rpm
    Overhaul interval 150 hours, estimated
    Rear sprocket drive
    Unsynchronized gearbox with five gears forward, one gear reverse
    Electrical starter with compressed air backup starting systems

    Max speed 45 km/h on road, estimated 20 km/h off-road
    Range 220 km on road, estimated quarter to half that overland
    Fuel capacity: 650 liters
    Fuel consumption: 295 liters per 100 km on road, estimated,
    590 to 885 liters per 100 km off road.

    Armor (mm@degrees)      Front      Side     Rear     Top/Bottom
     Hull                    30@        20@      20@       15
     Turret                  20@        20@90    30@90     15
    
    
    Weapons:
       Main turret rotation rate 360 degrees in 23 seconds
            electrical, 4 minutes manual
       76.2mm KT-28 
            Length 16.5 calibers
            Weight of gun 540 kg
            Shell weight 6.5 kg 
            Muzzle velocity 381 m/s HE
            Elevation -5 to +25 degrees
            Penetration (APHE):   mm at 90 degrees   Range
                                  46                 100 m 
                                  42                 500 m 
                                  38                1000 m
       76.2mm L-10 
            Length 26 calibers
            BR-350A APHE round:
              Shell weight:        6.3 kg
              Muzzle velocity    611 m/s APHE
              Penetration (APHE): mm at 90 degrees   Range
                                  63                 100 m 
                                  53 or 63           500 m 
                                  51                1000 m
            F-354 HE round:
              Shell weight:        6.23 kg
              Muzzle velocity    555 m/s HE
            69 rnds carried 
    
       4 7.62mm DT machine-guns
            MG turrets: 
                Elevation -30 to +30 degrees
                Traverse without turning turret: 25 degrees to the right, 
                10 degrees to the left
            Main turret ball mounts:
                Elevation -20 to +30 degrees
                Traverse without turning turret: 20 degrees to either 
                direction
            126 60-round magazines (7938 rounds total)
       1 7.62mm P-40 AA machine-gun (some models)
    
    
    Communications devices:
      71-TK-3 tank radio (71-TK-1 in older models)
           transmitter-receiver with preset channels
      Intercom system
          Connected to crew's soft tanker helmets
          Throat microphones
      Signaling flags
    
    
    In the Twenties and Thirties there was no concensus as to what a tank should look like. Most tanks of the Great War had had sizable crews because they had multiple weapon systems. In the inter-war period some designers concentrated on inexpensive light tanks, often operated by one or two men only. But the concept of the tank as a "battleship on land" lived on. The designers of these often very large tanks envisioned the them as formidable weapons of war, imprevious to machine gun fire and able to engage multiple targets simultaneously with their weapons.

    There were two main types of tanks in the Red Army in the pre-war years. The most common were infantry support tanks, slow vehicles which were intended to move at the same speed as the infantry. The most numerous of these tanks was the T-26. The other type of tank was the breakthrough tank, intended to smash through enemy lines and then wreak havoc in the enemy's rear. Breakthrough tanks included the BT series and the T-28, the first medium tank to be mass-produced in the Soviet Union.

    Inspired by the German Grosstraktor and the British Independent, the T-28 was a huge tank. It was almost seven and a half meters long, almost three meters high and weighed some 25 tons. While contemporary German and British tanks were armed with a machine gun or a 20 to 40mm gun, the T-28 sported a 76mm tank gun and four machine guns. At the time of its introduction in 1932 the T-28 was the most powerful tank in the world.

    But the T-28 was only the beginning of a line of Soviet land battleships. Designers would soon introduce even larger multi-turreted tanks, the T-35 (1932, eleven men, 55 tons), the T-100 (1939, 45 tons) and the SMK (1939, 56 tons).



    Visible in this picture are the vision slits of both the MG turret and main turret, as well as the pistol port
    beneath the vision slit of the main turret. The box in the middle of the sponson is the smoke generator.
    A jack and a tarpaulin would have been on the sponson next to the smoke generator.


    The T-28 had a crew of six. The driver sat in the front, in the middle of two machine gun turrets. He could usually see the front only, through his hatch. But when the machine gun turrets were turned aside he also had very limited visibility towards both sides through vision slits protected by armored glass on both sides of the driver's compartment.

    The cluch-brake steering system was far from ideal for a tank of this size and the length of the vehicle meant that the tracks were very long as well which led to turning problems. The T-28 tended to suffer from mechanical malfunctions in the clutch-brake steering system. The tank was difficult to drive and very fatigueing for the driver, though the ride was smooth and the T-28 usually negotiated obstacles with ease thanks to its considerable ground clearance. The tank's great height however made it somewhat unstable in steep climbs. The long track ground length meant that the tank had a relatively low ground pressure however and thus the tank moved with ease in snow and over soft ground.


    The driver's position, viewed from the starboard machine gunner's position. His seat is at left. The piece of sheet metal and the steel bar closest to the camera are the MG turret's travel lock (see below). Two driving sticks control the clutch-brake steering mechanism. Gas and clutch pedals are located in the same places as in a motor car and the gutted instrument panel is also visible. The gear shift too is in the usual place... what gear is it in ? I think it is in neutral. The light grey tuns on either side of the driver's seat are ammunition racks for DT machine guns.


    The driver had fuel, oil pressure, tachometer, oil temp, water in, water out temp, amp- volt meters, speedometer and odometer.

    For night driving the tank was equipped with two round headlights under armored covers. During daytime the headlights were kept folded forwards onto the glacis for protection against being mauled by branches and such while the tank was moving cross-country.

    The driver could exit the vehicle through his own hatch which opened forwards, or alternatively he could use any of the four hatches on the three turrets.

    The two machine gunners each had their own small turret which could rotate 165 degrees independently and thus could engage different targets. The MG turrets were rotated manually. The machine gun was the ubiqtuous DT, one of the most widely-used machine guns of the war. 40 drum magazines, each of sixty rounds, were stored at the machine gunner's position in a rotating rack.



    The starboard machine gunner's position, viewed from above, facing forward. His seat is at the bottom of the picture. In
    front of him is a rotating rack for forty machine gun magazines. The metal bar on the left may be a travel lock
    keeping the turret facing forward.


    The machine gunner could see ahead through the aiming sight and there was a vision slit protected by armored glass on both sides of the MG turret. There was also a pistol port in the outer side of the turret, it was really simply a hole of maybe three centimeters diameter, through which the gunner could aim his revolver. Soviet tank crews often had carbines - later submachine guns - for use outside their vehicles.

    He could exit the vehicle through a hatch at the top of the MG turret or alternatively through any of the other turret hatches.

    According to one source some T-28 had their starboard machine guns replaced with 45mm tank guns.


    The gunner's position, viewed from above, facing forward. His seat is at the bottom. The grey device may be part of the electric motor system rotating the turret. The wheel on the right controls elevation of the main gun, the breech of which can be seen in the upper right corner. Stowage space for the 76mm shells can be seen on the hull on the left of the gunner's seat. There is an apparently rotating ready rack for shells on the right of the gunner. Eight additional shells are stored beneath the gunner's seat.


    The gunner sat on the left side of the gun. He aimed and fired the main gun. He had his aiming sight towards the front, a periscope with 2.5x magnification which could rotate 360-degrees, a vision slit covered with armored glass and a pistol port, protected with a steel plug, on his left side.

    Early T-28s were equipped with the KT-28 gun which was based on the 76.2mm infantry gun model 1927/32. The gun had low muzzle velocity and was not an effective anti-tank weapon except against light tanks.



    The L-10 gun. On the right of the gun would be the ball mount of the tank commander's MG.

    From around 1938 these tanks typically carried the L-10 gun which had a semi-automatic breech. The gun's recoil dampening mechanism, which contained a pressure of 38 athmospheres, was above the barrel and permitted the gun to recol a maximum of 50 cm. Some late model T-28s were equipped with a primitive gun stabilizer. Neither type of gun had a muzzle brake so that smoke ended up in the turret. It is likely that electric fans took care of ventilation.

    The T-28 was modern in that it had a turret basket so that the whole turret crew moved along with the turret. The turret traverse operated with a small electric motor which was about 20 by 11 cm in size.

    For night fighting a round headlight could be fitted on both sides of the main gun.

    The gunner could exit the vehicle through the round turret hatch located behind him. This hatch was unusual for Soviet tanks in that it was hinged in the rear, providing no cover from enemy fire when opened. Alternatively the gunner could also use any of the other hatches but that took more time.


    The commander's position, viewed from the round hatch. His seat faces forward, towards the upper left
    corner in this picture. Beneath the seat is an ammunition rack for eight 76mm rounds and additional
    racks line the fighting compartment.


    The commander sat on the right of the main gun. His primary observation device was a periscope identical to that of the gunner's. In addition he also had an observation port and a pistol port towards the right of the vehicle. But when the tank was on the move the commander had to go back to a square turret hatch near the loader's position (see below) and peer out of it because he had no hatch in his own position. Visibility out of the tank was very bad and at least one Finnish company commander chose to lead his T-28s from on foot in order to see what was happening around him.

    The commander also operated the DT machine gun on its own flexible ball mounting next to the main gun. Nine magazines were stored for the machine gun in the hull behind the starboard machine gunner's position. Another stack of nine magazines were stored next to the port machine gunner's position, accessible to the commander when the turret was turned toward the left.

    He could also operate the P-40 AA machine gun which was on a flexible AA mounting in front of the round hatch.

    The loader stood behind the gunner and his task was to load the main gun. The gun's 70 rounds were stored mostly along the walls of the hull but eight rounds were in a ready rack underneath the gun. An additional twelve shells were located in two racks underneath the gunner's and loader's seats. The loader was not equipped with any vision devices.

    The radio set was installed, if at all, on the right, in the turret rear bustle. Tanks equipped with the older radio sets had the clumsy, railing-like radio antenna encircling the tank's turret while newer sets had whip antennae.

    The loader had his own square hatch, right of the center line of the turret top. This hatch seems often to have been used by the commander in guiding the tank because it opened its cover toward the enemy, providing a measure of protection. The loader operated not only the radio but also the rear-firing DT machine gun on a flexible ball mounting. Two stacks of eleven magazines each were stored next to his position.

    There is room for controversy about the roles of the crew members located in what I have listed as the commander's and loader's positions, above. In fact my main bibliographical source reverses their positions, declaring that the loader sat in the front right seat and that the commander occupied the rear of the turret. This may indeed have been so in Finnish Army use but whether that was the practice in the Soviet Army or the intention of the tank's designers is not clear to me.

    It is true that the short 76mm gun seems to have a lever on its breech which might be difficult to close from what I've labeled as the loader's position. But the crew member whom I've labeled as the loader had no vision devices and could therefore not have functioned as the commander of the vehicle. To add more confusion to the issue we must also remember that in contemporary light tanks (T-26, BT-5) and later medium tanks (T-34 m/1940) it was either the gunner or the loader who commanded the vehicle. Conceivably the same practice could have been followed in the T-28 as well, the vehicle being commanded by either the gunner or the loader (on the right side of the gun) and assisted by an assistant loader/radio operator. I have two Russian books which presumably would throw light on the matter if I only understood the language. If anyone is able to help out with this issue please let me know.

    There seem to have been two escape hatches on the floor of the vehicle. One in the front for the driver and the machine gunners, another in the floor of the turret compartment. The T-28 was designed gas-proof.

    The engine was a humongous 46.9 liter (2862 cid) unit which was originally rated at 450 hp but uprated to 500 hp in 1938. It ran on regular gasoline but the tank was nevertheless rather resistant to Molotov cocktails. A Finnish manual of 1942 suggests that this resistance may have been due to air being sucked into the engine through a large filter on top of the engine. The engine, flanked on each side by a large radiator, was separated from the fighting compartment by a bulkhead. It was often difficult to start the gasoline engine in the winter.

    The engine was separated from the fighting compartment by a bulkhead. Fuel tanks were in the rear of the vehicle. The gearbox also rotated the engine cooling fan whch had a diameter of something like 45 cm (18 in.). The m/1938 had a locking device which kept the gears engaged unless the clutch was disengaged. Nevertheless, the transmission was not a fine example of mechanical design and suffered from structural weaknesses.

    The tank's suspension was unremarkable and had a travel of only 10 cm (4 in.) which in turn led to the tracks slipping off the road wheels. The suspension is also said to have been too weak for a tank of this size. Small stones could become lodged in the tracks, breaking rubber off return rollers. In addtition the driving sprockets were too weak and teeth would sometimes break under the strain of moving the vehicle.

    Most models of T-28 were equipped with large, box-like smoke generators on the sponsons.

    Toolboxes, tools such as jacks, a tarpaulin and spare parts were stowed on the outside of the vehicle.


    The tank from the rear. Housings for the gunner's and commander's periscopes can be seen on top of the turret. The round hatch is slightly ajar. The loader's machine gun would be on the rear ball mount. The large round air cleaner cover can be distinguished on the rear deck. The engine is beneath the cover. Behind that is the muffler and then the housing for the engine fan which can be opened for inspection. There is another inspection hatch at the rear. The box on the sponson contained tools.


    The T-28 was a failure. It was not because there was anything especially substandard about its components, in fact some of its systems were later used on the highly successful T-34. But the concept of the land battleship was proven faulty beyond repair. Because the tank had three turrets and so many crew members it had to be made very large. The high silhouette in turn made the T-28 a large target and because of the tank's size the designers could not give it sufficient armor without increasing its weight above specification. As a result the expensive T-28 was designed to withstand machine gun fire only and in actual combat it fell victim to anti-tank rifles and 37mm anti-tank guns. These experiences led to an uparmored version in 1940, the T-28E which weighed 32 tons.

    There is a fascinating document in the Finnish War Archives describing a series of tests carried out on a captured, presumably already immobilized T-28. Finnish troops had a high regard for this huge tank and thus the First Army Corps wanted to find out how to best destroy it using improvised weapons.

    A 2 kg "sliding" mine (mine pulled at the last moment onto the path of an approaching tank by means of a long rope) broke the tank's track only if placed on a hard road surface. If the surface beneath the mine was soft it caused only cracks in the track joints. A box mine containing 3.5 kg of chlorite likewise had no effect when placed on soft surface but the track was broken when the mine was on a hard surface.

    A satchel charge made up of 4 kg of dynamite was placed on the side sponson above the track. The resulting explosion breached the sponson, tore a 25 by 30 cm hole in the tank's 20mm side armor and rendered the engine inoperable. Apparently the track remained intact.

    Another satchel charge, this time composed of 6 kg of dynamite, was placed on the other sponson. This explosion demolished the sponson and scattered the nearest return rollers onto the ground next to the tank, bringing down the track. A 40 by 50 cm hole was torn into the 20mm thick side armor of the tank. The engine was again judged inoperable.

    Next, a 2 kg TNT satchel charge was placed on the sloped top of an MG turret where the armor is 10mm thick. The resulting hole was 35 by 15 centimeters and it was estimated that the MG gunner and driver would have been killed. There was no damage to the main turret.

    Now a 2 kg TNT satchel charge was placed on the top of the main turret which is 15mm thick. The explosion tore a hole of 25 by 35 cm onto the turret top.

    Then a 3 kg TNT satchel charge was put on the glacis next to an MG turret. The glacis is 15mm and the MG turret side 20mm thick. The MG turret was blown away and the glacis was perforated by a 30 by 20 cm hole. Both gunner and driver were judged dead.

    Finally, a 4 kg TNT satchel charge was placed on the 15mm thick glacis. This time the hole was some 35 by 25 centimeters and again it was decided that both the machinegunner and driver would have been killed.

    It is clear from the above tests that the T-28 was resistant to improvised anti-tank weapons. A 1942 manual recommends that the tank be attacked by throwing a satchel charge onto the rear deck which had proved vulnerable. Even then the most likely result was said to be that the tank would simply be immobilized.


    It is difficult to appreciate from photographs just how big the T-28 is. It is huge.
    The model and figures in this picture are all in 1/76 scale. The model is by SHQ, the figures by Milicast.


    The T-28 was used in combat against the Japanese and the Poles in 1939, against the Finns in 1939-1940 and again at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. It was used by at least four heavy tank brigades, a brigade being equipped with 54 T-28s, 18 T-26s and assorted other armored vehicles.

    In the Winter War, the T-28 was encountered only on the Karelian Isthmus front. They were instrumental in the fall of the Mannerheim Line, often pulling armored sleighs filled with infantry. It has been estimated that the Finnish army destroyed at least ninety T-28s in the Winter War, most of them with AT guns fired from the side or with satchel charges. Several dozen were captured in reasonable state but the army lacked heavy recovery equipment and captured tanks were invariably left behind. Only two T-28s were retrieved during the Winter War.

    In the Continuation War the T-28 was encountered in Eastern Karelia. An additional five examples were captured and these were used alongside war-booty BT, T-26 and T-34 tanks. The T-28 was declared obsolete by the Finnish Army in July 1944 and withdrawn from combat.

    Between 503 and 523 of all versions were built. By summer 1941 the Russians had some 400 left but almost all were destroyed in the first months of Operation Barbarossa. Today there are five T-28 extant in the world - one is in Moscow, the others in Finland.



    Phoenix Command Stats



    Abbreviations:
    mhex = 2-meter hex
    yhex = 2-yard hex
    MH = 20-yard PC Mechanized hex

    *** = Optional stats for combined PCCS/Mechanized system using 2-meter hexes

    
    Crew and Armament     Field of View
    Commander              6
    Gunner                 1 to 6
    Loader                 1 to 6 
    Port Machine Gunner    1 to 3    
    Starbd Machine Gunner  1, 5 to 6 
    Driver                 1
    
    
    Armament                  Field of Fire   Gun Elev   Gun Depr  
     Main Gun  76mm              1 to 6          25        - 5
     Loader's MG 7.62mm          1 to 6          30        -20
     Rear  MG 7.62mm             1 to 6          30        -20
     Port MG gunner's MG 7.62mm  1 &  6          30        -30
     Stbd MG gunner's MG 7.62mm  1 to 2          30        -30
     AA Machine gun 7.62mm       1 to 6          50        -30
    
    
     Closest hex hittable by main gun:          13.7 yhex, 12.6 mhex
     Closest hex hittable by Loader's & Rear MG: 3.4 yhex,  3.1 mhex
     Closest hex hittable by Port & Stbd MGs:    1.7 yhex,  1.5 mhex
    
    
    
    Basic Hit Location
    ------------------
    
    Hull   Turret   Turret   Turret   Hull   Hull
    Facing Facing   Face     Side     Face   Side
    ----------------------------------------------
    Front  Front    01-25             26-00
    Front  Obliq    
    Front  Side
    Obliq  Front
    Oblliq Obliq
    Oblic  Side
    Side   Front
    Side   Obliq                                  
    Side   Side              01-12           13-00
    
    
    
    Equipment and Vehicle Data
    --------------------------
    Fuel Hit Modifier 5
    Ammunition Hit Modifier 5
    Spotting Modifier +5
    
    Hull Turning Rate 48 degrees / Phase, 12 degrees per Impulse
    Traverse Rate 31 degrees / Phase, 8 degrees per Impulse electrically
    Traverse Rate  3 degrees / Phase, 0.75 degrees per CA manually
    Acceleration VC 2.2 MH/Turn
    
    
    ACCELERATION ***
    Time Time   Speed Speed	  Speed	  Moves 
    secs phases km/h  mhexes  mhexes  mhexes
                      per     per     this Phase
                      Impulse Phase
    0      0      3	    0.2    0.8      1.8
    0.5           4     0.3    1.1	
    1             8	    0.6    2.2	
    1.5          11	    0.8    3.1	
    2      1     12	    0.8    3.3	    3.8
    2.5          13	    0.9    3.6	
    3            14	    1.0    3.9	
    3.5          16	    1.1    4.4	
    4      2     17.6   1.2    4.9      5.8
    4.5          19.3   1.3    5.4	
    5            21.8   1.5    6.1	
    5.5          24.3   1.7    6.8	
    6      3     26.8   1.9    7.4      8.7
    6.5          30.2   2.1    8.4	
    7            32.7   2.3    9.1	
    7.5          35.2   2.4    9.8	
    8      4     37.7   2.6   10.5     11.5
    8.5          40.2   2.8   11.2	
    9            42.7   3.0   11.9	
    9.5          45	    3.1   12.5	
    10     5     45	    3.1   12.5     12.5
    10.5         45	    3.1   12.5	
    11           45	    3.1   12.5	
    11.5         45	    3.1   12.5	
    
    
    
    Deceleration VC 2.0 MH/Turn,  4.6 mhexes/Phase ***
    
    
    Max Road Range 220 km on road, estimated 55 to 110 km overland
    Side Slope 31 degrees
    
    Ground Pressure 10.4 psi
    Moving Target Accuracy Mod 0
    Moving Shooter Accuracy Mod 0 (1 with stabilizer)
    
    
    Movement Speeds (MH/Turn) / Stall Chance
    -------------------------------------------------------
    Grade   Paved    Hard           Loose           Deep
    Slope   Road     Ground  Earth  Soil    Mud      Mud
                                    Snow    DeepSnow
       0    5.6  -   5.2 -   4.8 -  4.3 -   3.8 00  3.6 08 
      10    4.1  -   3.6 -   3.2 -  2.7 -   2.2 00  2.0 09
      20    2.6  -   2.1 -   1.7 -  1.2 00  0.7 01  0.5 12
      30    1.3  -   0.7 -   0.2 00  -  01   -  02   -  20
      40    0.2  -    -  -    -  01  -  03   -  05   -  44
      50     -   -    -  02   -  07  -  13   -  22   -  99
    
    
    
    Movement Speeds (mhexes per Phase) / Stall Chance ***
    -------------------------------------------------------
    Grade   Paved    Hard            Loose            Deep
    Slope   Road     Ground  Earth   Soil    Mud      Mud
                                     Snow    DeepSnow
       0   12.9  -  11.8 -  10,9 -  9.8 -   8.7 00  8.2 08 
      10    9.5  -   8.4 -   7.3 -  6.2 -   5.1 00  4.6 09
      20    6.0  -   4.9 -   3.8 -  2.9 00  1.6 01  1.1 12
      30    2.9  -   1.6 -   0.6 00  -  01   -  02   -  20
      40    0.6  -    -  -    -  01  -  03   -  05   -  44
      50     -   -    -  02   -  07  -  13   -  22   -  99
    
    
    
    CLUTCH-BRAKE STEERING SYSTEM, 2-meter hexes ***
     T-28 m/1938				
     Weight in kg	27800
     Horsepower	  500	      kg per hp:  55.6
     C (Gauge, in m)    2.39
     P	            0.018
    
     C	PM	km/h	HP req	Turning  Movement
                                    Radius   Speed in
                                    mhexes	 mhexes/Phase
      1	1.7	10.57	499.5	 1.2  	 2.9
      2	1.45	12.4	499.8	 2.4 	 3.4
      3	1.2	14.98	499.7	 3.6	 4.2
      4	1.05	17.12	499.7	 4.9	 4.8
      5	0.95	18.93	499.9	 6.0	 5.3
      6	0.825	21.8	500.0	 7.2	 6.1
      7	0.8	22.47	499.7    8.4	 6.2
      8	0.75	23.98	500.0  	 9.6	 6.7
      9	0.725	24.8	499.8  	10.8	 6.9
     10	0.7	25.69	499.9   12.0 	 7.1
    
    
    
    Weapon Data
       Use Soviet 76.2mm gun m/1966 data from Artillery Supplement for the KT-28 gun.
       Use Soviet 76.2mm L41.2 gun data for the T-34/76 from the Panzer supplement
           for HE shell PEN, PENF, AOI, DFE, BA and TOF.
       Use Soviet 76mm gun data from Artillery Supplement for HE fragmentation ***.
       Concussion data for PCCS ***:
       HE round (96% Claymore modeling)
        C    0    1    2    3   4    5    6   8   10  12  15 
       63K 22h  411  107   53  33   23   16  11    8   8   4              
       For the DT MG use MG data of T-34 in the Panzer supplement or the 
           separately published DT machine gun data. 
    
    
    
    ADDITIONAL TARGET SIZES FOR PCC PLAY ***
    
    Item                                  SIZ   Notes
    -------------------------------------------------------------
    Top Turret hatch, round                 5   From above
                                            3   From ground
    Top Turret hatch, square                4   From above
                                            2   From ground
    MG turret top hatch                     5   From above
                                            3   From ground
    Driver's front hatch                    8   From front
                                            5   From 45 deg angle
    Rear deck w. air intake                 9   From above
                                            7   From ground
    Rear deck w. transmission air intake    6   From rear
                                            4   From 45 deg angle
    Under hull                             12   From front
                                            9   From 45 deg angle
    
    






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