Appendix A: References

References for article: Harry Rabb 2013-2018: Life on Mars - Visual Investigation and implications to Planetary Protection

(1) Wikipedia: RNA

(2) Wikipedia: DNA

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(4) European Planetary Science, Dina Pasini, 13.8.2013: Could life have survived a fall to Earth?

(5) Universe Today, Fraser Cain, 29.7.2013: Is Life On Mars Related To Life On Earth?

(6) Wikipedia: Evolution

(7) Curiosity image archive

(8) Opportunity image archive

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(10) NASA 2012: Puzzling Little Martian Spheres That Don't Taste Like 'Blueberries'

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(12) S.Djordjevic 2014: Simulating Martian conditions: Methanogen survivability during freeze-thaw cycles

(13) Wikipedia: Microbial metabolism

(14) Wikipedia: Sulfate reducing bacteria

(15) Science magazine: Special Collection - Curiosity

(16) NASA: New Curiosity Research Papers

(17) John Grotzinger, 2013: A Habitable Fluvio-Lacustrine Environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars'

(18) D.T. Vaniman, 2013: Mineralogy of a Mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars .

(19) Guy Webster, JPL: NASA Curiosity: First Mars Age Measurement and Human Exploration Help

(20) NASA: NASA Rover Finds Conditions Once Suited for Ancient Life on Mars.

(21) Wikipedia: Fungus

(22) Universe Today, Nancy Atkinson, January 17, 2014: The Rock that Appeared Out of Nowhere on Mars

(23) 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 17-21.3.2014, Texas

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(25) The University of Buckingham: Barry E.DiGregorio

(26), Aug 06, 2012 by Lisa Zyga: Rock varnish may hold clues to life on Mars.

(27) Barry E. DiGregorio 2001: Rock Varnish As A Habitat For Extant Life On Mars.

(28),Timothy Oleson March 19, 2014, Bare Earth Elements: Mars rocks wear manganese coats

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(52) Wikipedia: Charles Darwin

(53) John Grotzinger , 24th of January 2014: Habitability, Taphonomy, and the Search for Organic Carbon on Mars

(54) NASA May 2, 2014: Space Station Research Shows That Hardy Little Space Travelers Could Colonize Mars

(55) NASA Viking mission web-site

(56) Gilbert V. Levin - web site

(57) Universe Today, Elizabeth Howell, December 11, 2013: Is There Martian Salty Water At The Red Planet’s Equator? These Lines May Be The Smoking Gun

(58) Wikipedia: Carl Sagan.

(59) International Committee Against Mars Sample Return

(60) Christopher P. McKay, NASA Ames Research Center, 2007 : Planetary Ecosynthesis on Mars: Restoration Ecology and Environmental Ethics

(61) Michael Davidson, 2004: Mars Fossils, Pseudofossils, and Problematica

(62) Joseph Rhawn 2014: Life on Mars? Evidence for Moisture, Algae, Fungi, and Lichens on the Red Planet?

(63) Barry DiGregorio, Gil Levin and Patricia Ann Straat 1997: MARS The Living Planet

(64) Gilbert V. Levin: Chapter Nine - Life After Viking: The Evidence Mounts

(65) Barry E. DiGregorio: The Viking Labeled Release experiment controversey: Why does it exist and when will it end?

(66) Wikipedia: Panspermia.

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(68) Chandra Wickramasinghe.

(69) Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology.

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(72) NASA: MAVEN spacecraft web-site

(73) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)

(74) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment

(75) Universe Today, Ken Kremer, December 26, 2013: Rough Red Planet Rocks Rip Rover Curiosity Wheels

(76) The Eighth International Conference on Mars, July 2014 Pasadena California

(77) Jie Wei, Alian Wang 2014: Detecting Biosignatures on Mars: Lessons Learned from Mars Analog Site Studies

(78) R. Bhartia 2014: Combining Chemistry and Morphology to Assess Biosignature

(79) R. L. Mickol 2014: Methanogens as Models for Life on Mars

(80) Scott M. Perl 2014: Experimental Constraints on Martian Aqueous Environments and Biosignature Preservation: Simulating Fluid Flow Profiles and Microbial Development in the Shallow Subsurface

(81) Valerie Fox, 8th Mars Report: Martian habitability.

(82) D.J. Des Marais 2014: Concepts Of Life In The Contexts Of Mars. .

(83) J.P.Grotzinger, and the MSL Science Team 2014: Habitability, Organic Taphonomy, And The Sedimentary Record Of Mars. .

(84) P. G. Conrad 2014: The Present Habitability Potential of Gale Crater: What We Have Learned So Far From Mars Science Laboratory. .

(85) N.L.Lanza 2014: High Manganese Observations With Chemcam in Gale Crater, MarS.

(86)Astrobiology Magazine 19 August 2014: Life on Mars? Implications of a newly discovered mineral-rich structure.

(87)Elias Chatzitheodoridis 2014: A Conspicuous Clay Ovoid in Nakhla: Evidence for Subsurface Hydrothermal Alteration on Mars with Implications for Astrobiology.

(88) NASA 2014-8-21, Bone up on Mars Rock Shapes

(89) Universe Today, Elizabeth Howell 2014-9-4, NASA Curiosity Rover Missing ‘Scientific Focus And Detail’ In Mars Mission: Review .

(90) Barry E. DiGregorio 2002, Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology, Dissolution cavities in Upper Ordovician sandstones from Lake Ontario: Analogs to vesiculated rocks on Mars?

(91) Vincenzo Rizzo and Nicola Cantasano 2009, International Journal of Astrobiology 8 (4), Possible organosedimentary structures on Mars

(92) V.Rizzo and N.Cantasano 2011, Mem. S.A.It.Vol.82, 2011, Textures on Mars: evidences of a biogenic environment.

(93) wikipedia: Permian–Triassic extinction event

(94) Scientific American, Summer 2014 Special Issue Dinosaurs!, article Raymond R.Rogers, David D.Crause: A 70-milloin Year-old Murder Mystery.

(95) Rhawn Joseph 2014: Apothecia on Mars? Life Discovered on the Red Planet

(96) Wikipedia: Stromatolite

(97) J. William Schopf 2007: Evidence of Archean life: Stromatolites and microfossils


(99) COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (2011 Update)

(100) NBC News, James Oberg 2004: Avoiding the 'F Word' on Mars.

(101) Universe Today, Matt Williamson, Philippe Gillet 2014: Meteorite May Contain Proof of Life on Mars, Researchers Say

(102) Wikipedia: AHL84001

(103) Wikipedia: Planetary protection

(104) Astrobiology Magazine 2014, Elizabeth Howell: How Did Life Become Complex, And Could It Happen Beyond Earth?

(105) W.M.Napier and N.C.Wickramasinghe 2010: Mechanisms for Panspermia

(106) Rhawn Joseph and Rudolf Schild 2010: Origins, Evolution, and Distribution of Life in the Cosmos: Panspermia, Genetics, Microbes, and Viral Visitors From the Stars

(107) Christopher R. Webster, 16.12.2014: Mars Methane Detection and Variability at Gale Crater

(108) Universe Today, Tim Reyes on December 17, 2014: NASA’s Curiosity Rover detects Methane, Organics on Mars

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(112) Universe Today, Paul Patton, January 6, 2015, Defining Life II: Metabolism and Evolution as clues to Extraterrestrial Life

(113) Ian West: Fossil Forest, Lulworth Cove; Part 1: The Ledge and Strata, Geology of the Wessex Coast of Southern England.

(114) Ian West: The Purbeck Fossil Forest - 2: The Trees

(115) Universe today: Bob King,March 2015, Mars Loses an Ocean But Gains the Potential for Life

(116) in Finnish language: Tähdet ja Avaruus, 29.08.2013 S.Nummila, H.Lehto : Steven Benner - saatamme olla marsilaista alkuperää

(117) in Finnish language: Tähdet ja Avaruus, 17.09.2013 S.Nummila : Tutkijat simuloivat elämän saapumista Maahan avaruudesta

(118) in Finnish language: Tiede-lehti, L.Purkamo M.Nuppunen-Puputti 2012: Ne syövät kiveä

(119) in Finnish language: Tähdet ja Avaruus, 2015 S.Nummila : Marsista löytyi elämälle sopivaa typpeä ja mahdollisesti rasvahappoja

(120) Astrobiology Magazine 2015: Curiosity Rover Finds Biologically Useful Nitrogen on Mars

(121) Astrobiology Magazine 2015: How Would The World Change If We Found Extraterrestrial Life?

(122) Gilbert V. Levin, Astrobiology 2015: The Curiousness of Curiosity.

(123) Morten Bo Madsen, April 2015: Mars might have liquid water

(124) Charles Darwin, 1859: On the Origin of Species

(125) Haas 2015, Earth-like aqueous debris-flow activity on Mars at high orbital obliquity in the last million years.

(126) Gilbert Levin, 8 July 2013, SPIE Newsroom: Evidence for microbial life on Mars?

(127) Matt Williams, Universe Today July 2015, Mars

(128) July 23 2015 University of Buckingham Astrobiologists Endorsed by UK Space Agency to Look for Life on Mars

(129) YouTube 3.8.2014 Dr. Gilbert Levin: But Wait! We've already Found Life on Mars! (24 minutes)

(130) YouTube 21.6.2010 Life on Mars Interview with Barry DiGregorio and Dr. Gilbert Levin (9 minutes)

(131) YouTube 3.9.2010 Gilbert V. Levin commentary on the book MARS: THE LIVING PLANET (8 minutes)

(132) NASA, 28.9.2015, NASA Confirms Evidence That Liquid Water Flows on Today’s Mars

(133) Universe Today, by Ken Kremer on September 28, 2015: NASA Discovers Salty Liquid Water Flows Intermittently on Mars Today, Bolstering Chance for Life

(134) 7.10.2015 Patrick Rowan's Skywatch: Mars has liquid water, could it have life?

(135) Icarus 2015, Colin M. Dundas, Alfred S. McEwen, Slope activity in Gale crater, Mars.

(136) Lyall Winston Small, September 2015: On Debris Flows and Mineral Veins - Where surface life resides on Mars

(137) Lyall Winston Small, 2012: In search of life on Mars

(138) Mars Rover Blog See for example discussion threads Yellowknife Bay and Mount Sharp - Extended Mission 1.

(139) Richard Thieltges, Evolutionary research - Stromatolite Identification Site

(140) Elizabeth A. Bella, 2015: Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon

(141) UCLA Newsroom October 19 2015: Life on Earth likely started at least 4.1 billion years ago — much earlier than scientists had thought

(142) YouTube 28.8.2015 Dr. Gil Levin - 18th Annual International Mars Society Convention (30 minutes)

(143) Lyall Winston Small: Mars rover images in SmugMug

(144) Barry DiGregorio, Gilbert V.Levin, Patricia Ann Straat, Chandra Wickramasinghe, Joseph Miller, 2011: The Microbes of Mars

(145) Lyall Winston Small, 2015: The Living Rocks of Mars.

(146) Simon George and Carol Oliver: NASA Macquarie University Pilbara Education Project

(147) Robert Walker, 2015: Places on Mars to Look for Microbes, Lichens, ...

(148) John D. Rummel, Margaret S. Race, Catharine A. Conley, David R. Liskowsky:
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(149) The 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Texas March 21–25, 2016: (Is there) Life On Mars? Martian exobiology tools, analogs, and environments

(150) K. F. Bywaters and R. C. Quinn: Perchlorate reducing bacteria: Evaluating the potential for growth utilizing nutrient sources identified on Mars.

(151) B. J. Rodriguez-Colon and E. G. Rivera-Valentín: Investigating the biological potential of Gale crater’s subsurface

(152) Z.R. Harrold, E.M. Hausrath, C.L. Bartlett, A.H. Garcia, O. Tschauner: Bioavailability of mineral-bound iron to a Snow Algae community and implications for life in extreme environments

(153) H. Yano, A. Yamagishi, H. Hashimoto: The first year operation and initial sample analysis and curation preparation of Tanpopo, the Japanese astrobiology experiment onboard the ISS-JEM-EF

(154) Gilbert V. Levin 2016, Extant Life on Mars: Resolving the Issues

(155) Robert J.C. McLean, Planetary Protection and Missions Between Earth and Mars

(156) Mihai G. Netea, Frank L. van de Veerdonk, Marc Strous, Jos W.M. van der Meer, Infection Risk of a Human Mission to Mars

(157) S. Leuko, L. J. Rothschild, B. P. Burns, Halophilic Archaea and the Search for Extinct and Extant Life on Mars

(158) Joop M. Houtkooper, Dirk Schulze-Makuch, The Possible Role of Perchlorates for Martian Life

(159) Wright S. P 2015: Microbial Diversity Analyses of Terrestrial Shocked Basalt and Shocked Basaltic Soil: Implications for Panspermia and Future Exobiology Measurements

(160) Sinha N., Kral T. A 2015: Growth of Methanogens on Different Mars Regolith Analogues and Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation During Methanogenesis

(161) New Scientist, 22-4-2016, Andy Coghlan, Agnès Cousin: First direct evidence of ancient Mars’s oxygen-rich atmosphere.

(162) Sherry L. Cady, Malcolm R. Walter, David J. Des Marais: Astropaleobiology in the 21st Century.

(163) R. Gabriel Joseph, 2016-5-15 : A Low to High Probability of Life on Mars: The Experts' Top Five Candidates.

(164) Chandra Wickramasinghe, May 7, 2016 : Evidence of life outside the Earth.

(165) Robert Walker, March 2016: Can We Risk Microbes From Human Crashes - On Mars? If Not, What Happens To Dreams To Colonize The Planet?

(166) Patrick Rowan's Skywatch, July 2016: 40 years after Viking landing questions remain about life on Mars

(167) Patrick Rowan's Skywatch, August 2016: Is NASA running away from life on Mars?

(168) Lyall Winston Small's web site: The Cosmos, Mars and Life

(169) Kelly Smith, May 2016: Do no harm to life on Mars? Ethical limits of Prime Directive

(170) Frances Westall et all, CNRS-OSUC-Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Orleans, France, Astrobiology Vol.15: Biosignatures on Mars: What, Where, and How? Implications for the Search for Martian Life

(171) Lindsay Hays et al.: NASA Astrobiology Strategy 2015

(172) Giorgio Bianciardi, Vincenzo Rizzo, Nicola Cantasano, 2014: Opportunity Rover’s image analysis: Microbialites on Mars?

(173) Rhawn Joseph, September 7, 2016: CV 16 5142, NASA Lawsuit: Life on Mars

(174) Lyall Winston Small 2015, Some More Microbialite Images From Mars

(175) Lyall Winston Small 2015, A Visual Case for Contemporary Formation of some Rocks on Mars. For interest see also In search of the sacred silk cotton tree

(176) Wikipedia: Chlorophyll

(177) David Whitehouse, BBC News 2002: Life on Mars hopes raised

(178) Paul Rincon , BBC News 2015:Possible fatty acid detected on Mars

(179) Milton Wainwright, N Chandra Wickramasinghe, Christopher E Rose, Alexander J Baker 2014, Recovery of Cometary Microorganisms from the Stratosphere

(180) Mark Strauss, National Geographic, October 17, 2016: NASA’s Bold Plan to Hunt for Fossils on Mars

(181) ESA, July 2016: Planetary Protection for EXOMARS: An interview with Gerhard Kminek

(182) Gilbert V. Levin and Patricia Ann Straat,Astrobiology October 1st 2016, The Case for Extant Life on Mars and Its Possible Detection by the Viking Labeled Release Experiment

(183) Mary Ann Liebert, Oct 18 2016: Microbial life on Mars: The possibility must be considered conclude researchers in Astrobiology .

(184) Patrick Rowan's Skywatch, October 31st 2016: Searching for life, whether its microbes or megastructures.

(185) EURO-CARES project. European Curation of Astromaterials Returned from Exploration of Space

(186) Neel V. Patel, November 17, 2016 Inverse: Alien Lifeforms Will Have an Apartment in Europe.

(187) Charles Q. Choi , Scientific American, November 30, 2016: NASA Outlines Planetary Protection Priorities

(188) M.Race, J.Johnson, J.Spry, B.Siegel and C.Conley 2015: Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions.

(189) Richard Hoover, Journal of Cosmology, 2011: Fossils of Cyanobacteria in CI1 Carbonaceous Meteorites.

(190) Irene Klotz, Seeker, MSN News, December 2016: Curiosity Finds Mars May Be Covered in Organic Materials .

(191) Rhawn Joseph, Harry Rabb, December 2016: Contamination and Damage to the Mars Rovers by Martian Fungi and Bacteria

(192) Robert Walker, October 2016: President Obama, Why Humans On Mars Right Now Are Bad For Science

(193) Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Natalia D. Novikova, Elena A. Deshevaya and Svetlana V. Poddubko, April 2016: Long-term spaceflight and microbiological safety issues

(194) Patrick Rowan, January 2017 Skywatch: Can narcissism explain the Fermi paradox?

(195) Nick Bostrom , 2008: WHERE ARE THEY?

(196) Chelsea Gohd, February 12 2017: NASA Discovers an Organism That Can Survive 16 Months in Outer Space

(197) David H. Krinsley, Barry DiGregorio, Ronald I. Dorn, Josh Razink & Robert Fisher, March 2017: Mn-Fe-Enhancing Budding Bacteria in Century-Old Rock Varnish, Erie Barge Canal, New York

(198) Wikipedia: Tardigrade

(199) Peter Dockrill, April 2017, The World's Oldest Fungus Might Have Just Been Found Buried Under South Africa

(200) SoCIA 2016, Social and Conceptual Issues in Astrobiology

(201) Science Alert 2017, Peter Dockrill, Mars Probe Data Shows The Red Planet Is Hiding Water Where There Shouldn't Be Any

(202) Icarus 2017-07-028, Jack T.Wilson, Equatorial locations of water on Mars: Improved resolution maps based on Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer data

(203) Science Alert Oct 2017, Fiona MacDonald, One of The Biggest Evolution Experiments Ever Has Followed 68,000 Generations of Bacteria

(204) Vladimir S. Cheptsov et al, 2017: 100 kGy gamma-affected microbial communities within the ancient Arctic permafrost under simulated Martian conditions

(205) Universe Today, Matt Williams , November 2017 : Life on Mars can Survive for Millions of Years Even Right Near the Surface

(206) Science alert, Peter Dockrill , November 2017 : Living Bacteria "From Outer Space" Have Been Found on The Outside of The ISS

(207) Universe Today, Matt Williams , November 2017 : Galactic Panspermia: Interstellar Dust Could Transport Life from Star to Star

(208) Universe Today, Matt Williams, J. William Schopf , December 2017 : Just a Billion Years After the Earth Formed, Life had Already Figured out Plenty of Tricks

(209) UNSW, Deborah Smith , December 2017 : Living on thin air: microbe mystery solved

(210) Science alert, Michelle Starr, december 2017: Mushrooms Played a Truly Surprising Role in Forming Our Planet's Atmosphere

(211) Leonard David, Barry DiGregorio, January 2018: Curiosity Mars Rover Investigates Eye-catching, Odd Features

(212) Rosita Suenson(ESA), Dwayne C.Brown(NASA), Joanna R.Wendel(NASA) 2018: ESA and NASA to investigate bringing Martian soil to Earth

(213) H. Jay Melosh and Alina Alexeenko, May 2018: Opinion: Tesla’s space-cruising Roadster is carrying a huge load of Earth’s germs

(214) Jennifer L. Eigenbrode, et all , Science June 2018: Organic matter preserved in 3-billion-year-old mudstones at Gale crater, Mars

(215) Christopher R. Webster et all, Science June 2018: Background levels of methane in Mars’ atmosphere show strong seasonal variations

(216) Pietro Cambi, March 2017: There was life on Mars and not only on Saturday night ...

(217) Giorgio Bianciardi, Vincenzo Rizzo, Maria Eugenia Farias and Nicola Cantasano, Astrobiology Outreach 2015: Microbialites at Gusev Crater, Mars.

(218) Vincenzo Rizzo,Maria Eugenia Farias, Nicola Cantasano, Daniela Billi, Manuel Contreras, Francesca Pontenani, Giorgio Bianciardi, Cell Biology 2015: Structures/textures of living/fossil microbialites and their implications in biogenicity. An astrobiological point of view

(219) Barry DiGregorio, Contact in Context 2012, Mars – No longer the Red planet but rather, the Golden Brown planet

(220) Fraser Cain, Universe today June 6, 2008, Mars Tilt

(221) Vincenzo Rizzo, Nicola Cantasano, International Journal of Astrobiology, September 2016: Structural parallels between terrestrial microbialites and Martian sediments: are all cases of ‘Pareidolia’?

(222) G. L. Villanueva, M. J. Mumma, et all, Science 05 Mar 2015, Strong water isotopic anomalies in the martian atmosphere: Probing current and ancient reservoirs

(223) R. Gabriel Joseph, Regina S. Dass, V. Rizzo, N. Cantasano, G. Bianciardi, Journal of Astrobiology and Space Science Reviews, 1,40--81, 2019:: Evidence of Life on Mars?

(224) T.A.Krupa LPSC 2017, Flowing water with a photosynthetic life form in Gusev crater on Mars

(225) Kirsi Lehto, Ursa 2019, Astrobiologia

(226) Harry Rabb, LPI Contrib. No. 2108, 2019, Visual identification of Extant Martian life

(227) NASA, Conference in Carlsbad, New Mexico 2019, Mars Extant Life: What’s Next?

(228) Gilbert V.Levin Scientific American blog, october 2019, I’m Convinced We Found Evidence of Life on Mars in the 1970s

(229) Patricia Ann Straat 2019, To Mars with Love

(230) Michelle Starr, Science Alert November 2019, Oxygen on Mars Is Behaving in a Way Scientists Can't Explain

(231) Evan Gough, Universe Today November 2019, Molecular Oxygen on Mars is Behaving Unusually Through the Seasons. A Sign of Life?

(232) Melissa Trainer, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 2019, Seasonal variations in atmospheric composition as measured in Gale Crater, Mars

(233) Evan Gough , Universe Today, November 20, 2019, Scientists Search for Ancient Fossils in Australia, Practicing the Techniques They’ll Use on Mars


(235) Vincenzo Rizzo, International Journal of Astrobiology, Cambridge University press, March 2020, Why should geological criteria used on Earth not be valid also for Mars? Evidence of possiblemicrobialites and algae in extinct Martian lakes

(X-1) Harry Rabb, 2015 book on Scribd: Life on Mars - Visual Investigation.

(X-2) Harry Rabb, Web site: Astrophotography - A Tour to the Night Sky

(X-3) Harry Rabb, YouTube channel

(X-4) Mars Images - H. Rabb, Google Photo site

(X-5) Mars Today - H. Rabb, Google Photo site

(X-6) Life on Mars Presentation - Rabb2018, Google Photo site

In images below is some more interesting objects which i have not handled in main article. Sol 2, the Bunny case. MOC 2012 image: interesting square, size 2x2 kilometers ( link to original). About the square: It is nice to speculate how far life proceeded on Mars. Did it reach intelligence? This issue I have on purpose avoided in this article, but i handle it somehow in Appendix D: Fermi paradox.

Fig.17.1. Click here to get high resolution picture.

Sol 305: Note the blue color of the stones and note how the soil close to these stones has same color. The Opportunity Sol 4382 microscopic imager image of revealed underground soil has several interesting objects.

Fig.17.2 Click here to get high resolution picture.

Sol 1065: Fresh meteor impact? On Opportunity 2005-10-18 image there is similar. Spirit Sol 822 (image by Dr.L.W.Small): White fungi?

Click here to get high resolution picture.

Sol 901 object has 2 similar objects, A - large one, and B - similar smaller one. Sol 640: Nice green surface and holes in a probable iron meteor.

Click here to get high resolution picture.

Appendix B: Image processing

Here I tell details how i process Curiosity and Opportunity images to get the natural colors. Dr. Lyall Winston Small, who is a real master in this area, told me how to do these.

Curiosity images

The Gimp image processing software is free:

The major improvement to Curiosity images comes from this: In Gimp "Color" tab select "Automatic" -> White balance. This very simple action returns natural colors. The same blue sky colors that NASA has used in some press release images. And this operation gives more details.

Fig.17.4.Colors in Curiosity images. Note also that in the MRO HiRISE image, targeted on Curiosity, the colors match the upper row.

Opportunity and Spirit images

For Opportunity and Spirit images the free software "ImageJ" is excellent:

You can produce natural color images from the black and white archive images taken with blue, green and red filters. The file names of the originals have L2, L5, L7 or R2, R5, R7 included. 2 is red filter, 5 is green filter and 7 is blue. In imageJ: First Open one by one the 3 images. In "Image" tab select "Color" and then "Merge channels". Then opens a tab where you select the red, green and blue original files. Then "OK" and you get final color result. Then "File"-> save as jpeg. For the final fine tuning I use Microsoft office picture manager. And if there is some dark areas in image and only those should be made brighter, then Windows live photo gallery has very good tone balancing for it.

Fig.17.5.Opportunity and Spirit images.

Appendix C:Guidelines for visual search for life on Mars

To search candidates for past or current life in Mars rover images, the following guidelines can be given as a summary:

Finding one interesting looking object is a good beginning. But finding second or more similar objects allows classification and confirmation that the object class may really be something interesting.

Think about possible Earth analogs for discoveries: If life on Mars and Earth base to same DNA and evolution has followed same kind of tracks, then the discoveries may have similarities with past or current Earth life.

Appendix D:Fermi Paradox - Where is everybody?

Fermi paradox is: "If our galaxy has several civilizations, capable of interstellar space travel, why we dont have frequent alien visitors here on Earth?".

Latest Drake equation estimate for number of civilizations developing technology in our galaxy is about 5000 civilizations, by Claudio Maccone.

Let's consider following possibility as a solution to the Fermi paradox:

In adult human body on Earth there is over 1 kg of microbes, bacteria which we need . We can not exist without them. Same kind of symbiosis with their own home planet microbes probably exist with alien species, especially if alien life bases to same DNA molecule as ours.

Statement 1: The macroscopic life on Earth is in balance with its microbes.
Statement 2: The macroscopic life on other distant alien planet is in balance with its own microbes.

If alien species would visit us and make a physical contact, then the microbial life of the aliens is spread and mixed to Earth. And also the aliens are infected by Earth microbes. And the end result can be:

Result 1: Both the aliens and humans are killed by the exchanged microbes.
Result 2: Only the other one is killed.
Result 3: No harm from microbes, both survive. Because of panspermia mechanism [105,106], the microbes between habitable planets in our galaxy are exchanged all the time. A kind of interstellar vaccination.

So this could be a planetary protection issue. If the first case is the probable result, then intelligent alien species would be wise enough to avoid direct physical contact. Or at least perform extensive biological tests before the contact. "Use gloves when shaking hand with the alien."

In Breakthrough initiatives there is the Starshot project where the plan is to send small ultra-light nanocrafts to the nearest star Alpha Centauri, to get images of recently discovered Earth-like planet Proxima b. The nanocrafts should be sterilized extremely well. Just in case.. Something to think about for the Breakthrough initiatives board: Yuri Milner and Mark Zuckerberg. When we send nanocrafts to Proxima b, then we are the aliens to possible habitants of Proxima b. But are we wise?

One possibility is that the basic assumption of Fermi paradox is completely wrong and we have been visited. About 3 billion years after big bang (10 billion years ago) the massive stars had produced enough heavy elements by supernova explosions to make emergence of DNA based life possible. Civilizations with capability to interstellar space travel could have developed much before our solar system was born 4.6 billion years ago. If so we can ask: Have all habitable environments in our Milky Way galaxy already been habited? We Earthlings may be latecomers. Interesting related issue is also the Zoo hypothesis , and evolution biologists William D. Hamilton's ideas about it: New York Times, Robert Wright , December 2016: Can Evolution Have a ‘Higher Purpose’?

Fig.17.6. Model for birth of life on Milky Way galaxy based on panspermia mechanism.

Another solution to Fermi paradox, The Great Filter, is handled by Patrick Rowan in January 2017 Skywatch: Can narcissism explain the Fermi paradox?. Related writing is also by Tim Urban 2014: The Fermi Paradox. The idea in Great Filter solution is that when a civilization develops science and technology, it may reach a point of self-destruction. As one example is development of nuclear weapons, and a global war with these weapons. And see Professor Nick Bostrom of Oxford University explaining the relation of The Great Filter solution of Fermi Paradox and the discovery of Life on Mars, 2008: WHERE ARE THEY?. Dr. Bostrom writes well. But there is one basic problem in his assumptions of probabilities. The panspermia mechanism increases the probabilities for life in our galaxy. Life does not have to be born from scratch again in every new planet. Instead microbial life spreads relatively fast from planet to planet in our galaxy with microbes traveling inside meteorites and comets. Dr. Bostrom is the director of Future of Humanity Institute and director of Strategic Artificial Intelligence Research Center.

My own hypothesis is that there are in our Milky Way galaxy civilizations, which have been wise enough and passed The Great Filter billions of years ago. And they would be capable to interstellar travel and capable to habit other habitable planets. We humans have just started to dream of these same steps and we have started to take the first steps. And I see the Zoo hypothesis as a valid alternative, and also Dr.Bostrom says in his article: "I don’t see how we can conclusively rule out this possibility. ". There is hope to pass the Great Filter. But first we must learn to protect our own planet Earth. We must handle the climate change and the risk of using nuclear weapons. And the world leaders should be intelligent enough to handle these global issues. But to make it clear once more: The NASA plan to bring Martian microbes, alien life, directly to Earth on 2030 decade may be the most potential Great Filter coming closer to us.

The Alcubierre drive is interesting possibility for fast interstellar space travel for advanced civilizations. If there would be frequent alien visitors on Earth, then the planetary protection rules possibly could be relaxed. In that case microbes from several other planets of our galaxy would already have been mixed to Earth biosphere.

Appendix E: Astrobiology conferences in Reno and Carlsbad

In May 2017 I got invitation by Dr. Kelly Smith to participate the conference: Social and Conceptual Issues in Astrobiology in University of Nevada, Reno USA, in 13th-15th of April 2018. Dr. Smith is Professor of Philosophy & Biological Sciences in Clemson University. Read also interesting article by Smith, May 2016: Do no harm to life on Mars? Ethical limits of Prime Directive. In the SoCIA meeting there was participants from several universities, NASA and SETI institute.

On 25th of October 2017 my abstract was approved to SoCIA 2018. Below is the title slide of my presentation on 14th of April. Totally I had 44 slides, where I present the key issues of my Life on Mars web site. The full slide set is here:

All the Abstracts of SoCIA 2018 are available: in the program select "PDF version of the program" to see them. I recommend to read excellent abstract by Margaret Race from SETI institute, on page 19. My abstract is on same page. Margaret writes: As SoCia researchers analyze Astrobiology from varied theoretical perspectives and non-science disciplines, they can come face to face with extreme situations and concerns that are no longer the realm of science fiction. Also her last statement is absolutely correct: The specific examples will include global catastrophic hazards and existential risks; long duration human missions beyond Earth orbit; and analysis of risks and potential biohazards posed by round trip missions to Mars. . Read also abtracts by Erik Persson(Lund University), on page 18, Linda Billings(NASA Planetary Defense office) on page 6, Barry E.DiGregorio (University of Buckingham) on page 8, Brian Green (Santa Clara University ) on page 9, Jacob Haqq-Misra (Blue Marble Space Institute) on page 9 and Michael Waltemathe (Ruhr University) on page 21. The abstract by these scientist handle issues which are important considering planetary protection.

Read also NASA event information about the meeting: Social and Conceptual Issues in Astrobiology (SOCIA 2018). Direct quote: ..we are on the brink of one of the most important discoveries in human history. Should this come to pass, we will immediately confront a series of extremely complex challenges that cannot be resolved without strong input from disciplines other than the sciences.

Below is part of the program. There was 2 presentations going on all the time.

My presentation in Socia conference went well. It was great to have Dr. Margaret Race from SETI institute in the audience. The discussion afterwards and established contacts are valuable.

General view of scientists was that we should not send humans to Mars. We must first solve ecological problems here on earth before we colonialize and mess up other planets. This was brought up also by great presentations by Lori Marino and Brian Green. In Reno I had an unforgettable discussion with Dr. Race concerning planetary protection regarding Mars and Earth. The next Socia meeting will be in Mississippi 2020, and there is a preliminary plan to have Socia 2022 in Finland.

In discussions it was brought up that NASA takes planetary protection seriously. The problem is that the rules by COSPAR are recommendations, and there are no international laws which would force all space agencies and private companies to fully take into account the planetary protection. That is why it is difficult to control player like SpaceX. This leads of course to a dangerous situation in future.

On 12th of November 2018 I presented my study in Helsinki Observatory, Finland. The event was the autumn meeting by Friends of the Observatory. Thanks for M.Voipio and M.Af Heurlin for the invitation. Link to Finnish language slideset. The new slideset is an improved version of the presentation in SoCIA 2018 in University of Nevada( slideset ). The title "Astrobiologiaa Marsista ja seuraukset planeettojen suojelulle" can be translated as "Astrobiology from Mars and implications to planetary protection".

Interesting conference is on November 2019: Mars Extant Life: What’s Next?. It is kept in National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Carlsbad, New Mexico. My abstract, LPI Contrib. No. 2108, Visual identification of Extant Martian life was approved on the agenda of this NASA organized conference. Among the presenters and abstrat authors are several astrobiologists, whose work I refer here: Beaty, Schulze-Makuch, Eigenbrode, Lanza, Des Marais, Levin, DiGregorio, …. Nice to see even word paleontology among the abstract titles. One purpose of the conference is to plan the future MARS exploration for investigating extant life. One alternative could be to send a rover with better instruments back to Gale crater. The benefit would be that you don’t have to search candidates for life again in another location. You could drive the rover directly to places which have candidates for life, for example back to John Klein site (Curiosity Sol 186,270). The conference conveners are:

David Beaty Mars Program Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech.
Michael Meyer NASA Headquarters
Penelope Boston NASA Astrobiology Institute
Mary Voytek NASA Headquarters
Brandi Carrier Mars Program Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech

Few days after the abstract approval a series of strange events started. On september 24th my abstract had dissappeared from the agenda of the conference. I contacted the conference organizers and they did not know the reason. They promised to arrance it back on the web site agenda.

Then I got information from the organizers that an outsider person had removed my abstract and presentation from the meeting. Very dirty and hostile action by the outsider. I had to cancel my participation and flights and I suffered major financial losses because of the action by the outsider. My poster presentation would have based on this material(link to photo folder) .

Later it came to my knowledge that the person who removed me from the conference is the director of a certain well known institute (3 letters, begins with L) in USA. I had an email conversation with her and I demanded her to pay back the economical damage caused to me and my family by her rude action.

Update 8th of October 2019: The person who removed my abstract from the Mars Extant Life: What’s Next? conference is the director of the LPI, L.Prockter. How did she suddenly got the idea to reject it long time after approval? Currently I am having an email conversation with her and I demand her to pay back the economic damage caused to me and my family by her rude action. During the communication we have now also directly observed how emails are blocked between certain persons and institutions. My emails went through to the director of the institute, but her replies and attempts to send email to me we rejected instantly by mail server. A phenomena which I have suspected several times last years in this Life on Mars study area. There was a workaround for a while, for communication between me and the director.

All the dirty games and threats against scientists and citizens which I describe in the chapter Colors in Mars , got once again confirmation. I had planned in the conference to give the whole 7 years of study results on a USB memory stick, 7 GB of data containing 4000 grouped and classified interesting images, for free to NASA Mars program office. The memory stick content is at least 10 times more than is presented on this Mars web site. But Prockter prevented this happening.

Summary of events: On 16th of September 2019 I got early indication in a mail from one of the orginizers, working on NASA Mars program office, that my abstract will be approved. On 19th of September my abstract was visible on meeting program web site. On 20th of September I booked and payed fligths(Helsinki-London-Dallas-Carlsbad) and hotels(Carlsbad and Dallas). On 24th of September Procter, who was not organizing the meeting, removed my abstract, without telling the organizers or me. The dates above are for time zone of Finland.

Appendix F: A small piece of humor

Fig.17.7. Martian Blueberry soup!

Same in Finnish language:

Miltä maistuisi Marsin Sinimarjakeitto?
Resepti:Keitä Sinimarjat hyvin Marsin suolaisessa vedessä jotta myrkyt poistuvat ja mikrobit kuolevat. Ylimääräisiä mausteita ei tarvita. Älä maista ennen tarjoilua.
Tarjoilu: Kohteliaisuuden vuoksi tarjoa keitto ensin Mars tukikohdan komentajalle. Jos kaikki on hyvin 5 minuutin jälkeen anna muidenkin nauttia keitosta!

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